Voting is under way in Kenya’s presidential election, where an opposition leader backed by the outgoing premier faces the deputy president who styles himself as the outsider and a “hustler”.
The election is considered close and East Africa’s economic hub could see a presidential run-off for the first time.
Economic issues such as widespread corruption could be of greater importance than the ethnic tensions that have marked past votes with sometimes deadly results.
Kenya is a standout with its relatively democratic system in a region where some leaders are notorious for clinging to power for decades.
Its stability is crucial for foreign investors, the most humble of street vendors and troubled neighbours like Ethiopia and Somalia.
The top candidates are Raila Odinga, a democracy campaigner who has vied for the presidency for a quarter of a century, and Deputy President William Ruto, 55, who has stressed his journey from a humble childhood to appeal to millions of struggling Kenyans long accustomed to political dynasties.
“In moments like this is when the mighty and the powerful come to the realisation that it is the simple and the ordinary that eventually make the choice,” Mr Ruto told journalists after becoming one of the first voters. “I look forward to our victorious day.”
He urged Kenyans to be peaceful and respect others’ choices.
“I have confidence that the people of Kenya are going to speak loudly in favour of democratic change,” Mr Odinga told journalists on his way to vote.
Outgoing President Uhuru Kenyatta, the son of Kenya’s first president, cut across the usual ethnic lines and angered Mr Ruto by backing Mr Odinga after their bitter 2017 election contest.
But both Mr Odinga and Mr Ruto have chosen running mates from the country’s largest ethnic group, the Kikuyu.
Mr Odinga, 77, has made history by choosing running mate Martha Karua, a former justice minister and the first woman to be a leading contender for the deputy presidency.
“Make your voice heard,” she said after voting early in a knitted cap, a sign of the unusually cold weather in parts of the country.
Rising food and fuel prices, huge government debt, high unemployment and corruption mean economic issues are at the centre of an election in which unregulated campaign spending highlighted the country’s inequality.
“We need mature people to lead, not someone who abuses people. Someone who respects elders,” said 55-year-old teacher Rosemary Mulima, who arrived with friends at a polling station on the outskirts of Nairobi to find an estimated 500 people in the queuel before dawn.
She said she had “very high” hopes for Mr Odinga on his fifth try.
Others predicted a lower turnout than the 80% five years ago and blamed voter apathy. The electoral commission signed up less than half of the new voters it had hoped for – just 2.5 million.
“The problems from 2017, the economy, the day to day life, are still here,” said 38-year-old shopkeeper Adrian Kibera, who was not sure he would bother to vote. “We don’t have good choices,” he said, calling Mr Odinga too old and Mr Ruto too inexperienced.
Difficulties were reported at times with the electronic voting system, and presidential candidate George Wajackoyah told journalists that some voting kits were not working.
Though polling in low single figures, Mr Wajackoyah and his pledges to legalise marijuana have prompted questions over whether he could draw enough votes to force a runoff.
The Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission told journalists that about 200 voting kits had failed out of more than 46,000, calling it “not widespread” and a “normal thing” for technology to break down at times.
It also said more than 6.5 million people had voted by midday, or about 30% of the 22 million registered.
Kenyans are hoping for a peaceful vote.
Elections can be exceptionally troubled, as in 2007 when the country exploded after Mr Odinga claimed the vote had been stolen from him and more than 1,000 people were killed.
Mr Ruto was indicted by the International Criminal Court for crimes against humanity for his role in violence but his case was terminated amid allegations of witness tampering.
In 2017, the high court overturned the election results, a first in Africa, after Mr Odinga challenged them over irregularities. He then boycotted the new vote and proclaimed himself the “people’s president” bringing allegations of treason. A handshake between him and Mr Kenyatta eventually calmed the crisis.
More than 22 million people are registered to vote. Official results must be announced within a week, but impatience is expected if they do not come before this weekend. The underfunded Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission is under pressure to ensure an untroubled vote.
To win outright, a candidate needs more than half of all votes and at least 25% of the votes in more than half of Kenya’s 47 counties. No outright winner means a run-off election within 30 days.